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    Neanderthal genome reveals interbreeding with humans

    Neanderthal genome reveals interbreeding with humans

    How did they sequence the Neanderthal genome?

    Bone contains DNA that survives long after an animal dies. Over time, though, strands of DNA break up, and microbes with their own DNA invade the bone. Pääbo's team found ways around both problems with 38,000 and 44,000-year-old bones recovered in Croatia: they used a DNA sequencing machine that rapidly decodes short strands and came up with ways to get rid of the microbial contamination.

    They ended up with short stretches of DNA code that computers stitched into a more complete sequence. This process isn't perfect: Pääbo's team decoded about 5.3 billion letters of Neanderthal DNA, but much of this is duplicates, because – assuming it's the same size as the human genome – the actual Neanderthal genome is only about 3 billion letters long. More than a third of the genome remains unsequenced. "It's pretty darn good for something that's 38,000 years old," says Edward Green, a team member now at the University of California, Santa Cruz.

    What did they find?

    Any human whose ancestral group developed outside Africa has a little Neanderthal in them – between 1 and 4 per cent of their genome, Pääbo's team estimates. In other words, humans and Neanderthals had sex and had hybrid offspring. A small amount of that genetic mingling survives in "non-Africans" today: Neanderthals didn't live in Africa, which is why sub-Saharan African populations have no trace of Neanderthal DNA.
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    #2
    Lol, now if you call somebody a Neanderthal, they may just say thanks for reminding me.
    "So I have stayed as I am, without regret, seperated from the normal human condition." Guy Sajer

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      #3
      I think this may explain linebackers.

      Comment


        #4
        Originally posted by PaidMyDues View Post
        I think this may explain linebackers.
        or white people

        Comment


          #5
          Originally posted by ian View Post
          or white people
          That is a racist comment.

          Comment


            #6
            Disgusting. Neanderthal puss must've been horrible, like a ham sammich with
            hair on it or something.

            Comment


              #7
              Originally posted by PaidMyDues View Post
              That is a racist comment.
              Its alright, Ive got dispensation.

              Comment


                #8
                Originally posted by Buck_Nastier View Post
                Disgusting. Neanderthal puss must've been horrible, like a ham sammich with
                hair on it or something.
                You would still do it Buck, I know you would.

                Comment


                  #9
                  Originally posted by Buck_Nastier View Post
                  Disgusting. Neanderthal puss must've been horrible, like a ham sammich with
                  hair on it or something.
                  I'd hit it.














































                  Just jokes.

                  Comment


                    #10
                    Originally posted by ian View Post
                    You would still do it Buck, I know you would.
                    I know.

                    Originally posted by NorthQuad View Post
                    I'd lick it.
































                    Just kidding, NQ.

                    Comment


                      #11
                      38,000 and 44,000-year-old bones recovered in Croatia
                      I don't buy it. Adam's bones are only 6,000 years old. I can testify to that because I have the remnants of his penis in a display case.

                      Comment


                        #12
                        I thought Lilith had them.
                        Originally posted by Le Type Français View Post
                        I don't buy it. Adam's bones are only 6,000 years old. I can testify to that because I have the remnants of his penis in a display case.
                        Please donate a dollar a day at http://justadollarplease.org.
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                          #13
                          Originally posted by Buck_Nastier View Post
                          Just kidding, NQ.
                          I probably would just to say that I've tried it.

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                            #14
                            Originally posted by Buck_Nastier View Post
                            Disgusting. Neanderthal puss must've been horrible, like a ham sammich with
                            hair on it or something.
                            You got all that from reading the report? My ability to read between the lines must really suck. lol
                            You will find a guide to preserving shoulder function @
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                              #15
                              The New York Times has an extensive article yesterday on a study reporting about 100 known neanderthal genes in homo sapien. The article is entitled: "Signs of Neanderthals Mating With Humans" discussing a study published in Science magazine this week by Paabo, et al. from the Max-Planck Institute in Leipzig.

                              http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/07/sc...derthal&st=cse

                              By NICHOLAS WADE
                              Published: May 6, 2010

                              Neanderthals mated with some modern humans after all and left their imprint in the human genome, a team of biologists has reported in the first detailed analysis of the Neanderthal genetic sequence.
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                              The New York Times

                              Max-Planck-Institute EVA
                              The Neanderthal DNA that Svante Pääbo analyzed came from these three bones.
                              The biologists, led by Svante Paabo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, have been slowly reconstructing the genome of Neanderthals, the stocky hunters that dominated Europe until 30,000 years ago, by extracting the fragments of DNA that still exist in their fossil bones. Just last year, when the biologists first announced that they had decoded the Neanderthal genome, they reported no significant evidence of interbreeding.

                              Scientists say they have recovered 60 percent of the genome so far and hope to complete it. By comparing that genome with those of various present day humans, the team concluded that about 1 percent to 4 percent of the genome of non-Africans today is derived from Neanderthals. But the Neanderthal DNA does not seem to have played a great role in human evolution, they said.

                              Experts believe that the Neanderthal genome sequence will be of extraordinary importance in understanding human evolutionary history since the two species split some 600,000 years ago.

                              So far, the team has identified only about 100 genes — surprisingly few — that have contributed to the evolution of modern humans since the split. The nature of the genes in humans that differ from those of Neanderthals is of particular interest because they bear on what it means to be human, or at least not Neanderthal. Some of the genes seem to be involved in cognitive function and others in bone structure.

                              “Seven years ago, I really thought that it would remain impossible in my lifetime to sequence the whole Neanderthal genome,” Dr. Paabo said at a news conference. But the Leipzig team’s second conclusion, that there was probably interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans before Europeans and Asians split, is being met with reserve by some archaeologists.

                              A degree of interbreeding between modern humans and Neanderthals in Europe would not be greatly surprising given that the species overlapped there from 44,000 years ago when modern humans first entered Europe to 30,000 years ago when the last Neanderthals fell extinct. Archaeologists have been debating for years whether the fossil record shows evidence of individuals with mixed features.

                              But the new analysis, which is based solely on genetics and statistical calculations, is more difficult to match with the archaeological record. The Leipzig scientists assert that the interbreeding did not occur in Europe but in the Middle East and at a much earlier period, some 100,000 to 60,000 years ago, before the modern human populations of Europe and East Asia split. There is much less archaeological evidence for an overlap between modern humans and Neanderthals at this time and place.
                              Neanderthals and homo sapiens apparently overlapped for some 44,000 years in Europe. This seems to be a long time, i.e. over 7 times longer than the biblical prediction of the human duration on earth, for homo sapiens to be co-existing with another humanoid species without interbreeding. But, as this article pointed out, whatever interbreeding that did occurred, it did not seem to have been prevalent amongst Europeans but rather appeared to be in the Middle East. The article also focused on another criticism of the Paabo study, that the three neanderthal bones from which most of the neanderthal genes were identified was heavily contaminated with homo sapien genes.

                              Wise.

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