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Discovery offers new hope to repair spinal cord injuries

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  • Discovery offers new hope to repair spinal cord injuries

    Discovery offers new hope to repair spinal cord injuries

    Scientists produce a type of stem cell-derived neuron that could potentially help restore movement

    Date:April 24, 2017Source:Gladstone InstitutesSummary:Scientists have created a special type of neuron from human stem cells that could potentially repair spinal cord injuries. These cells, called V2a interneurons, transmit signals in the spinal cord to help control movement. When the researchers transplanted the cells into mouse spinal cords, the interneurons sprouted and integrated with existing cells.Share:

    FULL STORY


    Todd McDevitt (right), Jessica Butts (center) and Dylan McCreedy (left) created a special type of neuron from human stem cells that could potentially repair spinal cord injuries.
    Credit: Chris Goodfellow, Gladstone Institutes



    Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes created a special type of neuron from human stem cells that could potentially repair spinal cord injuries. These cells, called V2a interneurons, transmit signals in the spinal cord to help control movement. When the researchers transplanted the cells into mouse spinal cords, the interneurons sprouted and integrated with existing cells.
    V2a interneurons relay signals from the brain to the spinal cord, where they ultimately connect with motor neurons that project out to the arms and legs. The interneurons cover long distances, projecting up and down the spinal cord to initiate and coordinate muscle movement, as well as breathing. Damage to V2a interneurons can sever connections between the brain and the limbs, which contributes to paralysis following spinal cord injuries.
    "Interneurons can reroute after spinal cord injuries, which makes them a promising therapeutic target," said senior author Todd McDevitt, PhD, a senior investigator at Gladstone. "Our goal is to rewire the impaired circuitry by replacing damaged interneurons to create new pathways for signal transmission around the site of the injury."
    Several clinical trials are testing cell replacement therapies to treat spinal cord injuries. Most of these trials involve stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells, which can turn into several different types of brain or spinal cord cells, or oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, which create the myelin sheaths that insulate and protect nerve cells. However, these approaches either do not attempt or cannot reliably produce the specific types of adult spinal cord neurons, such as V2a interneurons, that project long distances and rebuild the spinal cord.
    In the current study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the researchers produced V2a interneurons from human stem cells for the first time. They identified a cocktail of chemicals that gradually coaxed the stem cells to develop from spinal cord progenitor cells to the desired V2a interneurons. By adjusting the amounts of three of the chemicals and when each one was added, the scientists refined their recipe to create large amounts of V2a interneurons from stem cells.
    "Our main challenge was to find the right timing and concentration of the signaling molecules that would yield V2a interneurons instead of other neuronal cell types, such as motor neurons," said first author Jessica Butts, a graduate student in the McDevitt lab. "We used our knowledge of how the spinal cord develops to identify the right combination of chemicals and to improve our procedure to give us the highest concentration of V2a interneurons."
    Working in collaboration with Linda Noble, PhD, at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), the scientists transplanted the V2a interneurons into the spinal cords of healthy mice. In their new environment, the cells matured appropriately and integrated with existing spinal cord cells. Importantly, the mice moved normally after the interneurons were transplanted and showed no signs of impairment.
    "We were very encouraged to see that the transplanted cells sprouted long distances in both directions -- a key characteristic of V2a interneurons -- and that they started to connect with the relevant host neurons," said co-author Dylan McCreedy, PhD, a postdoctoral scholar at Gladstone.
    The researchers say their next step is to transplant the cells into mice with spinal cord injuries to see if the V2a interneurons can help to restore movement after damage has occurred. They are also interested in exploring the potential role of these cells in models of neurodegenerative movement disorders such as amyloid lateral sclerosis.

    https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0424152544.htm



    C-5, 6 SCI. Took about 6 months to walk. Walking full time. Without any assistance since Nov. 2003 and will make a full recovery

  • #2
    Good news! Thanks for the share!
    Donate for Clinical Trials at: http://www.justadollarplease.org/

    Information on U.S. Clinical Trials at: http://www.scinetusa.org/

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    • #3
      Need fast forward button...
      T3 complete since Sept 2015.

      Comment


      • #4
        If we were mice we'd have been fixed up years ago. I wish I were a mouse.
        "I have great faith in fools; self-confidence my friends call it." - Edgar Allen Poe

        "If you only know your side of an issue, you know nothing." -John Stuart Mill, On Liberty

        "Even what those with the greatest reputation for knowing it all claim to understand and defend are but opinions..." -Heraclitus, Fragments

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        • #5
          Originally posted by Oddity View Post
          If we were mice we'd have been fixed up years ago. I wish I were a mouse.
          Lmao
          T12L1 Incomplete Still here This is the place to be 58 years old

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          • #6
            According to language in the article: this has only been tested in the acute setting. amirite
            "That's not smog! It's SMUG!! " - randy marsh, southpark

            "what???? , you don't 'all' wear a poop sac?.... DAMNIT BONNIE, YOU LIED TO ME ABOUT THE POOP SAC!!!! "


            2010 SCINet Clinical Trial Support Squad Member
            Please join me and donate a dollar a day at http://justadollarplease.org and copy and paste this message to the bottom of your signature

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            • #7
              Originally posted by Oddity View Post
              If we were mice we'd have been fixed up years ago. I wish I were a mouse.
              Yeah, this would be a thing of the past.

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              • #8
                In video form:

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                • #9
                  Originally posted by lunasicc42 View Post
                  According to language in the article: this has only been tested in the acute setting. amirite
                  Yes, the story was based on the abstract showing transplantation at 2 weeks after injury in mice.

                  https://spinalcordresearchandadvocacy.wordpress.com/2017/04/25/discovery-offers-new-hope-to-repair-spinal-cord-injuries/
                  http://spinalcordresearchandadvocacy.wordpress.com/

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                  • #10
                    But I thought a rat takes a lot less time injured to be considered a chronic injury... I forget: what timeframe constitutes as a chronic injury in a rat... The answers I hear always differ a little and I am not sure
                    "That's not smog! It's SMUG!! " - randy marsh, southpark

                    "what???? , you don't 'all' wear a poop sac?.... DAMNIT BONNIE, YOU LIED TO ME ABOUT THE POOP SAC!!!! "


                    2010 SCINet Clinical Trial Support Squad Member
                    Please join me and donate a dollar a day at http://justadollarplease.org and copy and paste this message to the bottom of your signature

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                    • #11
                      Originally posted by lunasicc42 View Post
                      But I thought a rat takes a lot less time injured to be considered a chronic injury... I forget: what time frame constitutes as a chronic injury in a rat... The answers I hear always differ a little and I am not sure

                      https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5087825/
                      This may help. Here's a recent paper by Lars Olson. He's one of the best scientist working in the field.

                      Mice are generally used in working with gene therapies and proteins. The rat model more closely resembles the human injury and is much easier to work with in a lot of ways, especially during surgery. In rats, reactive astrocytes cluster at the border of the lesion by 1-2 weeks after injury; after 2-3 weeks, the astrocytic ?scar? has matured. Genetic modification is more difficult in the rat than in the mouse and, even though new methods have recently resulted in some commercially available genetically modified rats, mice remain the animal of choice for studies involving genetic manipulation. Although rats are larger than mice, the rat is still a very small animal compared to humans. Hence, long-distance axon regeneration, as needed in humans to repair spinal injuries, cannot be directly studied in the rat. Indeed, experimental results from rodent studies that report improved axonal growth (e.g. because of axons bridging the lesion site) might misinform us, because the volumes of gray matter that need reinnervation are much larger in humans than in rats. Human recovery after spinal cord injury is also slower than in the rat. Spontaneous recovery in humans is not considered to reach a plateau until 6-12 months after injury. The recovery of rats, on the other hand, typically plateaus ∼6-8 weeks after injury. The different time scales might reflect the longer regeneration distances needed in humans, compared to rats. As much as the short recovery period in rats is an advantage with respect to advancing experimental research, this difference in recovery periods might have implications for the investigation of therapies, particularly for treatments that need to be implemented during a specific time window. Data concerning secondary injury in humans also point to an extended timeframe in comparison to rats.
                      http://spinalcordresearchandadvocacy.wordpress.com/

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                      • #12
                        is there a good reason that some researchers do their studies on rats and others do studies on mice... Whats superior in relation to spinal cord injury studies... I guess ideally they would all be able to use primates
                        "That's not smog! It's SMUG!! " - randy marsh, southpark

                        "what???? , you don't 'all' wear a poop sac?.... DAMNIT BONNIE, YOU LIED TO ME ABOUT THE POOP SAC!!!! "


                        2010 SCINet Clinical Trial Support Squad Member
                        Please join me and donate a dollar a day at http://justadollarplease.org and copy and paste this message to the bottom of your signature

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                        • #13
                          Scientific articles:
                          http://www.nature.com/sc/journal/v52...tcallback=true
                          "Rats are used most commonly in preliminary studies as they are relatively inexpensive, readily available and have demonstrated similar functional, electrophysiological, and morphological outcomes to humans following SCI"

                          http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4283285/
                          See Table 1

                          Corporate ad:
                          http://www.transposagenbio.com/blog/rats-vs.-mice-in-genetic-rodent-model-engineering/
                          Copy/Paste link to view

                          And the opposition:
                          https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4545171/

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