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    Adult Stem Cells Aid in Repair of Neurological Damage Caused by Degeneration or Trauma

    Adult Stem Cells Aid in Repair of Neurological Damage Caused by Degeneration or Trauma, as Shown in Two Reports in Journal of Hematotherapy & Stem Cell Research

    Health/Medical Writers
    BIOWIRE 2K

    LARCHMONT, N.Y.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--June 12, 2003--Adult stem cells derived from human umbilical cord blood migrate to the site of neurological damage in the brain and spinal cord caused by disease or injury, according to two papers in the June 2003 (Volume 12, Number 3) issue of Journal of Hematotherapy & Stem Cell Research, a peer-reviewed journal published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. (www.liebertpub.com). The papers will be available free online at www.liebertpub.com/jht. These cutting edge studies are among the first to demonstrate therapeutic benefit from cord-blood derived neural stem cells in rodent models of trauma and neurodegenerative disease.
    Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis, Ph.D., Paul R. Sanberg, Ph.D., D.Sc., and colleagues from the Center for Aging and Brain Repair at the University of South Florida, College of Medicine, and Saneron-CCEL Therapeutics, Inc., Tampa, Florida, intravenously delivered human cord blood cells to a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which is characterized by motor neuron degeneration in the brain and spinal cord. The transplanted cells survived for at least 10-12 weeks, migrated preferentially to regions of degeneration, delayed disease progression, and extended the lifespan of treated animals.
    Samuel Saporta, Ph.D. and coworkers from the University of South Florida Health Sciences Center, Saneron-CCEL Therapeutics, Inc., and Chosun University Medical School in Gwang Ju, Korea, infused human umbilical cord blood stem cells into a group of rats with surgically induced spinal cord injury and studied the effects on trauma-related behavioral impairment. The researchers demonstrated that the stem cells localized to injured areas of the spinal cord and led to significant improvement in function, even when administered up to five days after injury.
    "In these two reports, the infusion of stem cells from human umbilical cord blood caused a dramatic change in the progression of disease pathology, elongating lifespan in mice and improving motor function in rats," comments Denis English, Ph.D., journal Editor and Director, Experimental Cell Research Program, The Methodist Research Institute, and Professor of Medicine at the Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis. "These results, although preliminary, are exciting and encouraging," he adds. "The studies are among the first to demonstrate that primitive neurons produced from stem cells can successfully incorporate into damaged areas of the nervous system and provide quick therapeutic benefit. These findings offer hope to individuals with neurological damage. However, it is not clear if these cells will affect long-term repair or are recruited to replace temporarily damaged cells during the healing process. Much more research is needed in this exciting area."
    Journal of Hematotherapy & Stem Cell Research is an authoritative peer-reviewed journal published bimonthly in print and online. The journal is dedicated to communication and objective analysis of developments in the biology, characteristics, and therapeutic utility of stem cells, especially those of the hematopoietic system. A complete table of contents and free sample issue may be viewed online at www.liebertpub.com/jht. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., is a privately held, fully integrated media company known for establishing authoritative peer-reviewed journals in many promising areas of science and biomedical research, including Cloning and Stem Cells, Human Gene Therapy, and Tissue Engineering. Its biotechnology trade magazine, Genetic Engineering News (GEN), was the first in its field and is today the industry's most widely read publication worldwide. A complete list of the firm's 60 journals, books, and newsletters is available at www.liebertpub.com.

    [This message was edited by seneca on 06-12-03 at 10:39 PM.]

    #2
    This is the kind of info. that has prompted the people at www.strokedoctor.com to start their umbilical cord stemcel treatments for SCI in Mexico.
    I can't wait to hear how they are working out for people.

    Comment


      #3
      IV infusions of stem cells benefit rodents with ALS, spinal cord injury
      Date: Thursday, June 12 @ 16:20:04 EDT
      Topic: Bioscience & Medicine

      Stem cells derived from human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) migrate to damaged areas in the brain and spinal cord caused by disease or injury and provide some therapeutic benefit, two new animal studies by researchers at the University of South Florida Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair found. Both studies, conducted in collaboration with Saneron CCEL Therapeutics, Inc., appear in the the latest issue of the Journal of Hematotherapy & Stem Cell Research published today.

      From University of Southern Florida:

      Intravenous infusions of human umbilical cord blood stem cells benefit rodents with ALS, spinal cord injury, USF studies find

      Tampa, FL (June 11, 2003) -- Stem cells derived from human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) migrate to damaged areas in the brain and spinal cord caused by disease or injury and provide some therapeutic benefit, two new animal studies by researchers at the University of South Florida Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair found.

      Both studies, conducted in collaboration with Saneron CCEL Therapeutics, Inc., appear in the the latest issue of the Journal of Hematotherapy & Stem Cell Research published today.

      The first study, featured on the cover, reports that cord blood cells administered intravenously delayed disease progression and improved the survival of mice genetically programmed to develop amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The cells found their way not only to regions of the brainstem, brain and spinal cord attacked by ALS, but also circulated to organs outside the central nervous system such as the lungs, heart and spleen.

      The second study demonstrated that intravenous injections of HUCB cells were drawn directly to the site of trauma in rats with spinal cord injuries and helped restore some motor function.

      "We were surprised to find so many of these human cells throughout the body three months after transplant," said Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis, PhD, DSc, assistant professor of neurosurgery and first author of the cover article. "But it's a good sign, because it means the cells multiplied and survived quite a long time."

      "This is one of the first studies to show the therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord blood cells in ALS, a neurodegenerative disease model rather than a trauma or injury model," said Paul R. Sanberg, PhD, DSc, a study author and director of the USF Center for Aging and Brain Repair. "More research is needed to determine the optimal amount of cells to provide better functional recovery and how these cells work in slowing progression of the disease."

      ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's Disease, attacks the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary movement, known motor neurons, and eventually paralyzes even the muscles that control breathing. There is no cure for the fatal disease.

      Implanting neural stem cells surgically is widely considered an unrealistic option for ALS because motor neuron damage spreads across several regions - the brain, brainstem and spinal cord - and would require too many complex targets for transplant.

      Dr. Garbuzova-Davis, Dr. Sanberg and colleagues examined the therapeutic potential of infusing HUCB stem cells - a more readily accessible alternative to embryonic neural stem cells - into a mouse model for ALS. One group of mice received HUCB cells and the other was administered a solution without HUCB cells. Both groups received infusions before they showed the first symptoms of ALS.

      The researchers demonstrated that the HUCB cells delayed disease progression, including weight loss, problems with balance and walking, and hind limb paralysis, by at least two to three weeks in treated mice - an interval equal to about two years in humans. The HUCB treated mice also survived longer than the untreated mice.

      Symptom delay was not primarily prompted by HUCB cells replacing damaged neural cells, Dr. Garbuzova-Davis said, because so few HUCB cells in the brain and spinal cord actually expressed characteristics of neurons and glial cells. Instead, the researchers suggest, the HUCB cells may somehow regulate the immune system, protecting remaining motor neurons from further damage and death.

      The second study, by the USF Center for Aging and Brain Repair and Chosun University Medical School in Korea, reported the first use of HUCB stem cells for repair of spinal cord injury.

      Samuel Saporta, PhD, USF professor of anatomy and neurosurgery, and colleagues, including Dr. Sanberg, infused HUCB stem cells into three groups of rats with spinal cord injuries and studied the effects on trauma-related behavioral impairment. One group was administered HUCB cells 24 hours following injury, another received cells five days after injury (delayed treatment), and the third, a control group, received no cellular treatment.

      The researchers showed that the cells targeted the areas of injury in the spinal cord and led to some recovery of function, even when administered five days after injury. In fact, the delayed treatment group demonstrated more significant improvement in hind limb movement than either the rats treated at one day or the untreated rats. None of the rats walked following treatment with the dose of HUCB cells administered in this study.

      The researchers suspect the better recovery results in animals with delayed treatment may be due to a less hostile immune environment as time passes. Immediately following injury, Dr. Saporta said, inflammatory substances called cytokines recruit immune cells to clear all foreign material away from the area of injury - including, perhaps some of the infused HUCB cells.

      "These cells have an amazing affinity for going where they are needed and take up residence within the nervous system," Dr. Saporta said. "Our results indicate that cord blood stem cells may provide a useful and novel treatment option for patients with spinal cord injury, but more studies are needed."

      Both research groups plan further studies to investigate if and how the HUCB cells affect long-term repair of motor neurons.

      http://www.scienceblog.com/community...print&sid=1735

      Comment


        #4
        Seneca,
        This is very interesting and hopeful for the
        ALS community..To add even a year more to
        their life quality, and buy time for more
        medical innovations to come aboard. Thank God.

        Now the rats with the spinal cord injury..
        They only report none of the rats actually
        walked, but did regain movement. Is there
        anyway to find out exactly what was witnessed? Did the rats regain any bowel/bladder activity or normal control for a rodent..I have no idea what that would be.
        Was anything witnessed under the magnificent
        type of microscopes now available? Can we find out any answers to these questions?
        How long will the treated rats be able to continue to be studied? Or is it a narrow
        time frame with rodents?
        I know too many questions? But, just need
        to know..Thanks
        Life isn't about getting thru the storm but learning to dance in the rain.

        Comment


          #5
          This is response to the postings from Schmeky and others in another topic on the same subject:

          Schmeky, it is unclear that the umbilical cord blood stem cells are doing anything to regenerate the spinal cord. I just downloaded and attached the actual paper that is being referred to by this article. There are two papers.

          The first paper indicates that intravenously administered human umbilical cord blood apparently migrated to regions of motoneuronal degeneration in mice with the ALS gene. This apparently reduced or delayed the loss of motoneurons. The authors speculate that the umbilical cord blood cells may be altering the immune response and status of the rats so that they are having less damage. It thus may be neuroprotective, i.e. prevent the loss of motoneurons by changing the ability of white blood cells to participate in the damage of motoneurons in these mice with the gene for ALS. It is really important also that this study be confirmed.

          The second paper likewise suggest that umbilical cord blood cells may be neuroprotective rather than regenerative. The authors infused human umbilical cord blood intravenously into rats after they had an compression injury of the cord. At 5 days after the injury, they had better function. This is far too short for regeneration.

          I also attach below an abstract of a third article that claims that umbilical cord blood cells can produce neurons. Please note that this is in culture and not after transplantation.

          Wise.



          Title: Fetal Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells Can Differentiate Sequentially into Neural Stem Cells and Then Astrocytes In Vitro
          Author(s): Hsiao-Nan Hao ; Jane Zhao ; Ronald L. Thomas ; Graham C. Parker ; William D. Lyman
          Source: Journal of Hematotherapy & Stem Cell Research Volume: 12 Number: 1 Page: 23 -- 32
          DOI: 10.1089/152581603321210109
          Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
          Abstract: In some rodent models, there is evidence that hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) can differentiate into neural cells. However, it is not known whether humans share this potential, and, if so, what conditions are sufficient for this transdifferentiation to occur. We addressed this question by assessing the ability of fetal human liver CD34+/CD133+/CD3- hematopoietic stem cells to generate neural cells and astrocytes in culture. We cultured fetal liver-derived hematopoietic stem cells in human astrocyte culture-conditioned medium or using a method wherein growing human astrocytes were separated from cultured, nonadherent hematopoietic stem cells by a semipermeable membrane in a double-chamber co-culture system. Hematopoietic stem cell cultures were probed for neural progenitor cell marker expression (nestin and bone morphogenic protein-2 [BMP-2]) during growth in both culture conditions. RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunocytochemistry assays showed that cells cultured in either condition expressed nestin mRNA and protein and BMP-2 mRNA. HSC similarly cultured in nonconditioned medium or in the absence of astrocytes did not express either marker. Cells expressing these neural markers were transferred and cultured on poly-D-lysine-coated dishes with nonconditioned growth medium for further study. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated that these cells differentiated into astrocytes after 8 days in culture as indicated by their morphology and expression of the astrocytic markers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100, as well as by their rate of proliferation, which was identical to that of freshly isolated fetal brain astrocytes. These findings demonstrate that neural precursor gene expression can be induced when human hematopoietic stem cells are exposed to a suitable microenvironment. Furthermore, the neural stem cells generated in this environment can then differentiate into astrocytes. Therefore, human hematopoietic stem cells may be an alternative resource for generation of neural stem cells for therapy of central nervous system defects resulting from disease or trauma.
          Attached Files

          Comment


            #6
            dr wise, my niece is havin her baby in 6wks and i have already made arrangments with VIACORD for the storage of the unbilical cord. my question to you is how much hope should i put into the thought of one day bein transplanted with the stem cells from an umbilical cord, because at 1550.00 it's alot for someone like me[fixed income]. i guess i'm asking is it worth it? [img]/forum/images/smilies/confused.gif[/img]

            Comment


              #7
              Glomae,

              The recommendation of all the American Academy of Pediatrics is to donate the umbilical cord blood to a public bank rather than a private one. The reasons are as follows:

              First, the evidence that umbilical cord blood can promote regeneration and recovery from chronic spinal cord injury is not yet available or confirmed. As I pointed out below, neither of the studies that were touted by this news article showed that the umbilical cord blood cells are acting as pluripotent stem cells. There is even controversy whether umbilical cord blood contain a large number of pluripotent stem cells.

              Second, the blood from a baby of course should be matched to the baby. There is no guarantee, however, that it will be matched to a relative, even a close relative. In any case, some evidence suggest that matching of umbilical cord blood is not that critical for engraftment. For example, umbilical cord blood transfusions are commonly done with partially matched or even unmatched blood from unrelated donors. In most cases, some of the cells from the umbilical cord blood will engraft. Therefore, if and when evidence becomes available that umbilical cord blood transfusions are beneficial for spinal cord injury, people should be able to obtain them from public umbilical cord blood banks, much like people now get peripheral blood transfusions with cross-typing and matching of blood types.

              Third, cells deteriorate over time even under the best storage and freezing conditions. While there have been some reports that cells that have been stored a decade or more can be thawed out and still be viable, there are no guarantees. So, if the blood is intended for the baby when it grows up, the cells may not be useable in 20-30 years when it is needed.

              Fourth, more important, in 10-20 years, we will very likely be able to make any cell of the body into a stem cell. There will not be a need for umbilical cord blood cells for this purpose.

              I am concerned that many thousands of people are wasting their money with private banking of umbilical cord blood. If people donate the umbilical cord blood, it can benefit many others now. Umbilical cord blood transfusions are now being used routinely to treat immune-deficiency syndromes, anemia, and auto-immune diseases. Many study suggest that it is probably as effective and probably safer than bone marrow heterografts (because adult bone marrow are not only likely to be rejected but produces a relatively high incidence of graft-versus-host disease where the blood cells made by the transplanted bone marrow attacks the host cells).

              I am sure that the hospital that the baby is being born in has access to an umbilical cord blood bank. Donation of the blood to such a bank should be free and should add to the over 100,000 units that have already been banked, allowing other people to benefit from the unit.

              Wise.

              Comment


                #8
                The Red Cross has been banking cord blood for some time. Doc, why is it taking so long to show whether cord blood contains pluripotent cells? Hasn't this been studied for a significant period of time? I would think that with the advances made in ESC, and even ASC lately, that the technology and knowledge to answer this riddle should be close at hand.

                Is this just a matter of funding once again to apply the necessary resources?
                What we do in life echoes in eternity. Maximus - Gladiator

                Comment


                  #9
                  thank you dr young,you saved me money that i didn't have to begin with. i live in a very small area so i will contact the local hospital to see if they can find a public umbilical cord bank, or if they even know what i'm talking about. the other thing dr young is i often wonder what would be the best therepy for me as far as a cure. my accident is somewhat unusal in the fact that i laid nearly 4 days and nights in horriable tempertures before being rescued, and i think the swelling did alot more damage than if i had been found right away. what do you think?

                  Comment


                    #10
                    larwatson, umbilical cord blood stem cells are probably fairly rare and the stem cells in neonatal blood commit apoptosis (suicide) rapidly during the days that follow birth. Blood of new born babies, for example, rapidly approach adult blood in the number of stem cells that they contain. The signals that cause this apoptosis are not well-understood. Many investigators are trying different methods of expanding hematopoietic stem cells in umbilical cord blood. Dozens of tissue culture media are claimed to stimulate stem cells to divide in umbilical cord blood.

                    All the studies to date with umbilical cord blood (and even bone marrow) transplants have shown that the cells will get into the injured brain and spinal cord. Once there, however, they are not turning into functional neurons or glia. However, some investigators have reported that these cells improve function despite not producing neurons or glia. Thus, there are two theories that have been proposed to explain the beneficial effects of bone marrow and umbilical cord blood cells. One theory is that these cells are secreting trophic factors that may be protecting neurons and facilitating tissue repair. The second theory is that the umbilical cord blood stem cells are changing the inflammatory or immunological environment, allowing better cell survival and tissue repair. Neither of these theories have been tested adequately.

                    In the past few months, we have been trying to grow umbilical cord blood cells. We are using various factors but the cells are typically slow growing and we don't see a lot of cells that look or behave like neurons after weeks of growth in culture. The cells, however, do survive and migrate in injured spinal cords. So far, we are not seeing a lot of recovery but our studies are just beginning. I believe that it will be possible to find a way to grow large number of pluripotent stem cells from umbilical cord blood.

                    On the other hand, much evidence suggest that fetal blood (before birth) contain more pluripotent stem cells and that these cells can get into various organs, including the brain and spinal cord, and produce neurons. This phenomenon is called microchimerism and is observed frequently in women who have had babies. During pregnancy, fetal stem cells escape from the blood of the fetus across the placental maternal-fetal barrier, get into the mother's blood, migrate into various organs, and make organ specific cells. Note, however, that these are fetal stem cells.

                    Why don't we see microchimerisim with stem cells producing organ-specific cells after transfusions of umbilical cord blood? We know that umbilical cord blood contain fairly large numbers of hematopoietic stem cells that migrate into the bone marrow and other tissues and continue to produce blood cells. This is in fact one of the most exciting applications of umbilical cord blood transfusions, for replacing hematopoietic stem cells in people with anemia, immunodeficiencies due to low white blood cell counts, etc. One possibility is that umbilical cord blood is already too mature and have relatively few pluripotent stem cells but still have significant numbers of hematopoietic stem cells.

                    Wise.

                    Comment


                      #11
                      Can the umbilical blood stem cells be propagated? Isn't that what must be done with any kind of stem cell, in order to get enough of them?
                      Alan

                      Proofread carefully to see if you any words out.

                      Comment


                        #12
                        Another article on this promising use of umbilical cord stemcells.

                        Source: University Of South Florida Health Sciences Center
                        Date:
                        2003-06-17


                        Intravenous Infusions Of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells Benefit Rodents With ALS, Spinal Cord Injury
                        Tampa, FL (June 12, 2003) -- Stem cells derived from human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) migrate to damaged areas in the brain and spinal cord caused by disease or injury and provide some therapeutic benefit, two new animal studies by researchers at the University of South Florida Center of Excellence in Aging and Brain Repair found.

                        Both studies, conducted in collaboration with Saneron CCEL Therapeutics, Inc., appear in the most recent issue of the Journal of Hematotherapy & Stem Cell Research published today.

                        The first study, featured on the cover, reports that cord blood cells administered intravenously delayed disease progression and improved the survival of mice genetically programmed to develop amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The cells found their way not only to regions of the brainstem, brain and spinal cord attacked by ALS, but also circulated to organs outside the central nervous system such as the lungs, heart and spleen.

                        The second study demonstrated that intravenous injections of HUCB cells were drawn directly to the site of trauma in rats with spinal cord injuries and helped restore some motor function.

                        "We were surprised to find so many of these human cells throughout the body three months after transplant," said Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis, PhD, DSc, assistant professor of neurosurgery and first author of the cover article. "But it's a good sign, because it means the cells multiplied and survived quite a long time."

                        "This is one of the first studies to show the therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord blood cells in ALS, a neurodegenerative disease model rather than a trauma or injury model," said Paul R. Sanberg, PhD, DSc, a study author and director of the USF Center for Aging and Brain Repair. "More research is needed to determine the optimal amount of cells to provide better functional recovery and how these cells work in slowing progression of the disease."

                        ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's Disease, attacks the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary movement, known motor neurons, and eventually paralyzes even the muscles that control breathing. There is no cure for the fatal disease.

                        Implanting neural stem cells surgically is widely considered an unrealistic option for ALS because motor neuron damage spreads across several regions -- the brain, brainstem and spinal cord -- and would require too many complex targets for transplant.

                        Dr. Garbuzova-Davis, Dr. Sanberg and colleagues examined the therapeutic potential of infusing HUCB stem cells -- a more readily accessible alternative to embryonic neural stem cells -- into a mouse model for ALS. One group of mice received HUCB cells and the other was administered a solution without HUCB cells. Both groups received infusions before they showed the first symptoms of ALS.

                        The researchers demonstrated that the HUCB cells delayed disease progression, including weight loss, problems with balance and walking, and hind limb paralysis, by at least two to three weeks in treated mice -- an interval equal to about two years in humans. The HUCB treated mice also survived longer than the untreated mice.

                        Symptom delay was not primarily prompted by HUCB cells replacing damaged neural cells, Dr. Garbuzova-Davis said, because so few HUCB cells in the brain and spinal cord actually expressed characteristics of neurons and glial cells. Instead, the researchers suggest, the HUCB cells may somehow regulate the immune system, protecting remaining motor neurons from further damage and death.

                        The second study, by the USF Center for Aging and Brain Repair and Chosun University Medical School in Korea, reported the first use of HUCB stem cells for repair of spinal cord injury.

                        Samuel Saporta, PhD, USF professor of anatomy and neurosurgery, and colleagues, including Dr. Sanberg, infused HUCB stem cells into three groups of rats with spinal cord injuries and studied the effects on trauma-related behavioral impairment. One group was administered HUCB cells 24 hours following injury, another received cells five days after injury (delayed treatment), and the third, a control group, received no cellular treatment.

                        The researchers showed that the cells targeted the areas of injury in the spinal cord and led to some recovery of function, even when administered five days after injury. In fact, the delayed treatment group demonstrated more significant improvement in hind limb movement than either the rats treated at one day or the untreated rats. None of the rats walked following treatment with the dose of HUCB cells administered in this study.

                        The researchers suspect the better recovery results in animals with delayed treatment may be due to a less hostile immune environment as time passes. Immediately following injury, Dr. Saporta said, inflammatory substances called cytokines recruit immune cells to clear all foreign material away from the area of injury -- including, perhaps some of the infused HUCB cells.

                        "These cells have an amazing affinity for going where they are needed and take up residence within the nervous system," Dr. Saporta said. "Our results indicate that cord blood stem cells may provide a useful and novel treatment option for patients with spinal cord injury, but more studies are needed."

                        Both research groups plan further studies to investigate if and how the HUCB cells affect long-term repair of motor neurons.

                        Editor's Note: The original news release can be found here.


                        --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                        This story has been adapted from a news release issued by University Of South Florida Health Sciences Center.

                        Comment


                          #13
                          Originally posted by Wise Young:


                          All the studies to date with umbilical cord blood (and even bone marrow) transplants have shown that the cells will get into the injured brain and spinal cord. Once there, however, they are not turning into functional neurons or glia. However, some investigators have reported that these cells improve function despite not producing neurons or glia. Thus, there are two theories that have been proposed to explain the beneficial effects of bone marrow and umbilical cord blood cells. One theory is that these cells are secreting trophic factors that may be protecting neurons and facilitating tissue repair. The second theory is that the umbilical cord blood stem cells are changing the inflammatory or immunological environment, allowing better cell survival and tissue repair. Neither of these theories have been tested adequately.

                          In the past few months, we have been trying to grow umbilical cord blood cells. We are using various factors but the cells are typically slow growing and we don't see a lot of cells that look or behave like neurons after weeks of growth in culture. The cells, however, do survive and migrate in injured spinal cords. So far, we are not seeing a lot of recovery but our studies are just beginning. I believe that it will be possible to find a way to grow large number of pluripotent stem cells from umbilical cord blood.

                          Wise.
                          Great stuff Doc. With regard to the bone marrow . . . given the fact that you trained the guys at Neuronyx, have they shed any light on whether they have been successful in getting the adult cells to act like neurons or glia? It seems that if they are looking at trials in acute injuries that they might have solved this problem. Which actually brings to mind another question. Given the hostile environment of the spinal cord shortly following imjury, wouldn't it make more sense for Neuronyx to begin trials with chronic patients?
                          What we do in life echoes in eternity. Maximus - Gladiator

                          Comment

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