Announcement

Collapse
No announcement yet.

Cells in patients noses hold potential to restore function in spinal cord injury

Collapse
X
 
  • Filter
  • Time
  • Show
Clear All
new posts

    Cells in patients noses hold potential to restore function in spinal cord injury

    Cells in patients&rsquo noses hold potential to restore function in spinal cord injury



    Implanting olfactory ensheathing glial cells into the spinal cords of paralyzed adult rats recently has been shown to promote neuronal cell repair and restore function. After transplantation, the rats were able to walk, even climb over complex terrain, and respond to touch and proprioception (stimuli originating in muscles and tendons) in their hind-limbs. These results are the most dramatic functional and histological repair yet achieved after complete spinal cord transection in adult mammals, and they open new avenues in the search for treatment of spinal cord injuries in other mammals, including humans.

    The leader of the group of scientists who achieved this, Dr. Almudena Ramon-Cueto, Institute of Biomedicine, Spanish Council for Scientific Research in Valencia, is one of a panel of experts speaking in New Orleans April 22 at an Experimental Biology 2002 American Association of Anatomists symposium on Olfactory Ensheathing Cells: Therapeutic Potential in Spinal Cord Injury. Chaired by Dr. Kathryn J. Jones, Loyola University in Chicago, the panel discusses the location and structure olfactory ensheathing cells, how they work, and why the best hope for restoring function in human spinal cord injury patients might well lie in their own noses.

    Dr. Ramon-Cueto presents the data from her adult rat study and discusses the advantages of using olfactory ensheathing glia to treat spinal cord injuries in mammals. An important one, she says, is that these cells can be obtained from adult donors, offering the possibility of auto-transplantation. If this technique had a future application in humans, the patient could be his or her own donor. Using the patient&rsquos own plentiful supply of these olfactory ensheathing cells would resolve problems with tissue availability as well as the need for immune system suppression to avoid rejection of foreign tissue. The cells also hold great promise in overriding the usual hostility of the brain and spinal cord of adult mammals to axon regeneration, which has always been a big problem for the design of therapeutic approaches to treating spinal cords. Dr. Ronald Doucette, University of Saskatchewan, explains this promise.

    In animals, including humans, the nerve small cells in the nasal passages that detect odors in the air we breathe (i.e. the olfactory neurons) die and are replaced at regular intervals. The nerve fibers of these newly-formed neurons grow within the olfactory nerve and eventually connect with the olfactory bulb (i.e. the part of the brain concerned with smell). The success with which this reconnection happens is why we do not normally detect any loss of smell even though the neuronal recycling is an ongoing event in each and every one of us. How these nerve fibers accomplish this task in adult mammals is not known for sure, especially given the relatively inhospitable environment for nerve growth in other parts of the brain and spinal cord. Dr. Doucette describes how olfactory ensheathing cells are believed to play a significant role in providing a friendly environment through which the olfactory nerve fibers can grow to make connections with the olfactory bulb. These glial cells ensheathe or envelope the nerve fibers of the unmylineated olfactory nerves along the entire extent of the nerve from the origin of the nerve in the nose to their termination in the olfactory bulb. He next talks about the role these cells play in the unusual plasticity observed in this area of the brain of adult mammals, that is, how they are believed to facilitate the growth of olfactory nerve fibers into the brain.


    When he next describes the migratory ability of olfactory ensheathing cells to move toward demyelinated areas of the spinal cord, he will explain why he believes these cells are a clinically relevant alternative to Schwann cells for the repair of the injured spinal cord and the treatment of demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis. He also discusses some of the obstacles yet to be overcome before olfactory ensheathing cells can be considered part of a therapeutic approach for either condition and describes his own experiments on spinal cord injury and growing human olfactory mucosa (i.e. tissue from the nasal passages) in the lab. Dr. Robin Franklin, University of Cambridge&rsquos Centre for Brain Repair, focuses on the ability of transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells to keep on creating protective sheaths around the nerve fiber &mdash and the usefulness of that behavior for repairing areas of persistent damage in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. He also discusses why remyelination becomes less efficient with age &mdash an essential question as the potential for transplantation is considered. Using toxin models of CNS demyelination, his research group has been able to identify likely growth factors and cytokine mediators of remyelination.

    Tracey DeLucia, a MD/PhD graduate student in Dr. Jones&rsquo laboratory at Loyola University, discusses some of the neurotrophic properties of these ensheathing cells and the mechanisms by which they might work. Included in the discussion of mechanism will be recent studies comparing and contrasting other types of transplanted material and olfactory ensheathing cells and potential molecular effects. Dr. Jones&rsquo group is interested, among other things, in developing combinatorial treatment strategies for complex neurological injury, with particular interest in gonadal steroids as neurotherapeutics to be used in conjunction with olfactory cell transplantation in spinal cord injury transplantation.

    [This message was edited by seneca on Apr 23, 2002 at 09:26 AM.]

    #2
    Nose Cells May Repair Spinal Cord Injuries
    Cell Transplant From Nose to Spine Might Restore Lost Function

    By  Jennifer Warner WebMD Medical News Reviewed By Gary Vogin, MDadvertisement



    April 22, 2002 -- Transplanting special cells from the nose into the spinal cord may help paralyzed patients regain lost function. A new study shows the experimental technique may open doors in the ongoing search for spinal cord injury treatments.

    Spanish researchers say they've achieved dramatic results after testing the transplants in laboratory rats. By transplanting the nose cells, which are normally involved in detecting scent, into the spinal cords of paralyzed adult rats, the rats were able to walk, climb, and respond to touch in their hind limbs.

    Researchers say the treatment seems to work because this type of nasal cell reproduces quickly in the body and helps to promote cell repair in the spinal cord.

    Study author Almudena Ramon-Cueto, MD, PhD, of the Institute of Biomedicine and the Spanish Council for Scientific Research in Valencia, Spain, says using cells from the nose offers many advantages. One of the biggest is that the patient could potentially be his or her own cell donor. By using the patient's own plentiful supply of these cells, problems with both availability and immune system rejection of foreign cells are solved, says Ramon-Cueto.

    The study was presented today at an Experimental Biology 2002 American Association of Anatomists meeting in New Orleans.

    Comment


      #3
      OEG cells

      All are very informative posts! These OEG cells may be an integral part of the comprise treatment for SCI, that the "right-to-life" folks can't interfer with!
      Jake's Pop

      Comment


        #4
        My money is on an OEG combination

        OEG have the greatest regenerative potential and the fewest ancillary problems like politics and ethics. I'm glad to see them getting this kind of exposure. I wish Christopher Reeve would mention them once in a while. In addition to the researchers mentioned in the article, Geoff Raisman in London is doing fantastic work with OEG and an Aussie group is developing OEG modified to secrete growth factors. Hopefully the MS Community will begin sponsoring a lot of OEG studies. They seem to proceed on issues better than the SCI Community and would also benefit.

        I wonder how applicable OEG are for stroke... It seems they would be, at least in part. Be great to rally the troops from communities of several different conditions and really turn up the heat on OEG.

        ~See you at the SCIWire-used-to-be-paralyzed Reunion ~
        ~See you at the CareCure-used-to-be-paralyzed Reunion ~

        Comment


          #5
          I'm kind of new to the OEC research. I recently searched on the internet and found a study regarding such research on rats dated March 2000. Is this the same study, and if so, why is it just now receiving publicity, and what has been done since?
          "I will drive the lane,
          I will drain the three,
          I will finger roll,
          but the one thing I will not do is FADE AWAY"

          Comment


            #6
            Duceno,

            These are continuing studies. Four groups around the world have reported positive effects of OEG transplants in spinal cord injury. This includes initially the work of Geoff Raisman's group in London, Almudena Ramon-Cueto in Madrid (and she also worked with the Miami Project), Jeff Kocsis at Yale (worked with porcine OEG), and Lu in Australia (used nasal mucosa). Ramon-Cueto has been doing monkey experiments. Kocsis has already done monkey experiments and a company named Alexion is involved in the studies and plans to do a clinical trial. Finally, Chris Shields and colleagues at the University of Louisville just inked a deal with a company to fund studies on neuroepithelial cells from the nose, perhaps to carry out a trial (http://carecure.org/forum/showthread.php?t=15620)

            This particular news report stems from a presentation made by Ramon-Cueto at a recent meeting.

            Wise.

            Comment


              #7
              Cells In Patients' Noses Hold Potential To Restore Function In Spinal Cord Injury

              Cells In Patients' Noses Hold Potential To Restore Function In Spinal Cord Injury

              Implanting olfactory ensheathing glial cells into the spinal cords of paralyzed adult rats recently has been shown to promote neuronal cell repair and restore function. After transplantation, the rats were able to walk, even climb over complex terrain, and respond to touch and proprioception (stimuli originating in muscles and tendons) in their hind-limbs. These results are the most dramatic functional and histological repair yet achieved after complete spinal cord transection in adult mammals, and they open new avenues in the search for treatment of spinal cord injuries in other mammals, including humans.
              The leader of the group of scientists who achieved this, Dr. Almudena Ramon-Cueto, Institute of Biomedicine, Spanish Council for Scientific Research in Valencia, is one of a panel of experts speaking in New Orleans April 22 at an Experimental Biology 2002 American Association of Anatomists symposium on Olfactory Ensheathing Cells: Therapeutic Potential in Spinal Cord Injury. Chaired by Dr. Kathryn J. Jones, Loyola University in Chicago, the panel discusses the location and structure olfactory ensheathing cells, how they work, and why the best hope for restoring function in human spinal cord injury patients might well lie in their own noses.

              Dr. Ramon-Cueto presents the data from her adult rat study and discusses the advantages of using olfactory ensheathing glia to treat spinal cord injuries in mammals. An important one, she says, is that these cells can be obtained from adult donors, offering the possibility of auto-transplantation. If this technique had a future application in humans, the patient could be his or her own donor. Using the patient's own plentiful supply of these olfactory ensheathing cells would resolve problems with tissue availability as well as the need for immune system suppression to avoid rejection of foreign tissue. The cells also hold great promise in overriding the usual hostility of the brain and spinal cord of adult mammals to axon regeneration, which has always been a big problem for the design of therapeutic approaches to treating spinal cords. Dr. Ronald Doucette, University of Saskatchewan, explains this promise.

              In animals, including humans, the nerve small cells in the nasal passages that detect odors in the air we breathe (i.e. the olfactory neurons) die and are replaced at regular intervals. The nerve fibers of these newly-formed neurons grow within the olfactory nerve and eventually connect with the olfactory bulb (i.e. the part of the brain concerned with smell). The success with which this reconnection happens is why we do not normally detect any loss of smell even though the neuronal recycling is an ongoing event in each and every one of us. How these nerve fibers accomplish this task in adult mammals is not known for sure, especially given the relatively inhospitable environment for nerve growth in other parts of the brain and spinal cord. Dr. Doucette describes how olfactory ensheathing cells are believed to play a significant role in providing a friendly environment through which the olfactory nerve fibers can grow to make connections with the olfactory bulb. These glial cells ensheathe or envelope the nerve fibers of the unmylineated olfactory nerves along the entire extent of the nerve from the origin of the nerve in the nose to their termination in the olfactory bulb. He next talks about the role these cells play in the unusual plasticity observed in this area of the brain of adult mammals, that is, how they are believed to facilitate the growth of olfactory nerve fibers into the brain.

              When he next describes the migratory ability of olfactory ensheathing cells to move toward demyelinated areas of the spinal cord, he will explain why he believes these cells are a clinically relevant alternative to Schwann cells for the repair of the injured spinal cord and the treatment of demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis. He also discusses some of the obstacles yet to be overcome before olfactory ensheathing cells can be considered part of a therapeutic approach for either condition and describes his own experiments on spinal cord injury and growing human olfactory mucosa (i.e. tissue from the nasal passages) in the lab. Dr. Robin Franklin, University of Cambridge's Centre for Brain Repair, focuses on the ability of transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells to keep on creating protective sheaths around the nerve fiber - and the usefulness of that behavior for repairing areas of persistent damage in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. He also discusses why remyelination becomes less efficient with age - an essential question as the potential for transplantation is considered. Using toxin models of CNS demyelination, his research group has been able to identify likely growth factors and cytokine mediators of remyelination.

              Tracey DeLucia, a MD/PhD graduate student in Dr. Jones' laboratory at Loyola University, discusses some of the neurotrophic properties of these ensheathing cells and the mechanisms by which they might work. Included in the discussion of mechanism will be recent studies comparing and contrasting other types of transplanted material and olfactory ensheathing cells and potential molecular effects. Dr. Jones' group is interested, among other things, in developing combinatorial treatment strategies for complex neurological injury, with particular interest in gonadal steroids as neurotherapeutics to be used in conjunction with olfactory cell transplantation in spinal cord injury transplantation.





              --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

              Note: This story has been adapted from a news release issued by Federation Of American Societies For Experimental Biology for journalists and other members of the public. If you wish to quote from any part of this story, please credit Federation Of American Societies For Experimental Biology as the original source. You may also wish to include the following link in any citation:

              http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...0424073621.htm


              --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              http://stores.ebay.com/MAKSYM-Variety-Store

              Comment


                #8
                Dr. Young,

                when this will come into the reality FINALLY? Parkinson, MS, stroke and even Alzheimer has already its trial started up, only spinal cord injuries are somehow tailing away. I don't believe this is not ready for human trial yet. The worst of it is that even though the OECs will show as a clinically serious potential therapy for us we haven't won yet because, as you well know, there will be a need for another combinations. For Heaven's sake, there is no political or ethical restriction for this as it's in case of stem cells, ESC or nuclear transfer cloning. If this is doable in Portugal (of course, I do mean the cells from nasal mucosae, not from a bulb) why it's not doable in the U.S.? Also, don't you think that these cells could be pushed out by stem cells in the lapse of time? Everybody is working like mad with them (stem cells), and everywhere. Jeff is wrong if he think the OEG are our only and best hope. Some researchers are even starting to compare these two types.

                I just don't want that "their" never-ending OEG research turn out like Schwab and his IN-1 did. We were waiting 10 years for it, then another 3 years for Cedars trial, today for OEG and next year someone will tell me to wait again because stem cells shows to have even better potential like OEG! Why don't they try, Dr. Young?

                Joe
                2016

                Comment


                  #9
                  Joe

                  The regenerative potential of unmodified stem cells is not as much as that of OEG. The olfactory system regularly regenerates itself unlike the rest of the CNS.

                  Work is proceeding on OEG much quicker than stem cells for SCI. The problem of a source for cells is much more easily resolved when they are autologous. It also cuts the FDA out of most of the process. OEG work is happening everywhere for SCI. Can you say the same about stem cells?

                  When OEG are proven in chronic, contusion injuries and autologous procedures are working well in primates you can bet human trials will happen quickly. Add to that the potential of combining other therapies that encourage axonal growth and the future is bright. Unfortunately, it's not the immediate future.

                  ~See you at the SCIWire-used-to-be-paralyzed Reunion ~
                  ~See you at the CareCure-used-to-be-paralyzed Reunion ~

                  Comment


                    #10
                    When OEG are proven in chronic, contusion injuries and autologous procedures are working well in primates you can bet human trials will happen qu

                    jeff,
                    so why have they proved oeg in chronic injury?
                    we been talking about oeg a long time on the forum.
                    so why haven't someone tried the cells on chronic?
                    there is no one protesting or banning oeg. why all the
                    excuses this time?

                    Comment


                      #11
                      four groups

                      1)There was aprogram on Dıscovery channel.They asked scientist What is the benefits from space ststion. 10 different scientist answered 10 different answers.I m not against the space station.Space ststion will enable us to explore a new planets that SCI not exist.Any way ;
                      THE COST OF SPACE STATION IS 100 BILLIONS USD.SPACE STATION WILL BE COMPLETED WITHIN 5 YEARS.AND 100 BILLIONS WILL BE RELEASED WITHIN 2005

                      2)But there was only Four groups around the world have reported positive effects of OEG transplants in spinal cord injury .WHY THE NUMBER IS NOT 400 HUNDREDS?.IF 400 HUNDRED LAB IS WORKING AT LEAST ONE OF THEM WILL BE SUCCESFUL.

                      3)THE COST OF THE OEG RESEARCH DONT EXCEED 1 MILLIONS.OEG RESEARCH TAKES 10 YEARS TO COMPLETE. WHEN OEG RESEARCH COMPLETED ANOTHER SPACE STATION WILL BE COMPLETED ON MARS PLANET.thıs means that another 100 bıllıons will be released

                      3)you can ask me what wıll be changed when you complain. I belıeve that these message sıgnals goes to unıverse and sombody hears us

                      Comment


                        #12
                        DA

                        Do you think I'm making excuses for anyone? If you do, you're wrong. I've lamented the transection model in OEG studies as much as anyone. As far as chronic, I'd sure as hell like to see that get done also.

                        My take on it? I think labs need walking rats and primates in order to get more attention and funding. They've solved the easiest case first in order to build momentum, if anyone wants MO.

                        In some ways it's working. The OEG trailblazers are now being joined by other labs who are trying to confirm the results. SCI Project even took it a step further and did a chronic/contusion study. Maybe they'll keep at it and stun the SCI Community in a year or two. I hope so.

                        Well, DA, maybe you should start an attack campaign to ridicule OEG researchers everywhere and turn the community against them... Yeah, that would really help.

                        ~See you at the SCIWire-used-to-be-paralyzed Reunion ~
                        ~See you at the CareCure-used-to-be-paralyzed Reunion ~

                        Comment


                          #13
                          DA, scientists have been trying OEG transplants in chronic contused spinal cords and it is not working as well as we had hoped. The question is why and whether we and others are not doing something right. It suggests that it is not just a matter of slapping some OEG into the spinal cord and seeing thousands of axons growing across the injury site. If it were that easy, it would have been done by now. Wise.

                          Comment


                            #14
                            dr young and jeff.
                            its about trying. i hate hearing about failure by
                            not trying.



                            dr young what kind of results were you guys expecting?
                            were you expecting silver bullet results?
                            were these results combination results?
                            i would not expect too much from oeg cells alone, IMO.

                            Comment


                              #15
                              What about treating the area of contusion with that stuff to remove the scar tissue first? That stuff that was reported earlier his month (yes, I'm too tired to remember what it's called). Then slap on the OEGs?
                              Courage doesn't always roar. Sometimes courage is the quiet voice at the end of the day saying, "I will try again tomorrow."

                              Disclaimer: Answers, suggestions, and/or comments do not constitute medical advice expressed or implied and are based solely on my experiences as a SCI patient. Please consult your attending physician for medical advise and treatment. In the event of a medical emergency please call 911.

                              Comment

                              Working...
                              X