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what is 60 usable mean

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    what is 60 usable mean

    1- Many scientists have questioned whether there are indeed 60 usable human embryonic stem cell lines, whether this represents sufficient genetic diversity for the lines to be used for therapy, and even whether these lines (which are mostly owned by private companies) are available for use without commercial ties.

    questıon:what is 60.ıt means only 60 ecs will be used ?

    2-KING: One of the debates within this debate over embryonic stem-cell research is whether, if you do go ahead with this research, to use only existing embryonic stem cells that have been donated to fertility clinics and the like, or whether to create embryos for the purpose of embryonic stem-cell research.

    Where do you stand on that issue? Would you support creating embryos solely for the purpose of medical stem-cell research?

    REEVE: Absolutely not. That's a very black market industry that we're trying to avoid, but it will spring up if the federal funding is not allowed.

    And one thing it's important to remember is that every state in the union must license fertility clinics. And in these fertility clinics, every day of the week, fertilized embryos that will not be implanted in the womb are headed for the garbage. Now, if you believe that life begins the moment that an egg is fertilized, then it would seem to me that there would be an outrage that these unwanted fertilized embryos are being thrown in the garbage

    question: whether ıs there any ınstructions that could be applied about unused fertilized embryos or its quite normal to thrown in the garbage ?

    3-If garbage collectors contact with these embryos with skin or breathe accidentaly ,does this cause any illness?

    ouch, garbage collectors may revolt...


    1. What is a stem cell line? A stem cell line usually refers to a line of cells that produces several different kinds of cells. The 60 stem cell lines could have come from only a few embryo or 60 different embyros. For example, the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) has six stem cell lines that have been shown to produce neural cells, hepatic cells, muscle cells, etc. It is not clear how many embryos these lines were obtained from. They could have come from only one embyro. Many scientists have been calling for stem cell lines representing many different embryos. The reason is that Congress may soon criminalize cloning as a means of producing stem cells that have the same genetic background. To minimize rejection of stem cell transplants, it will probably be necessary to tissue-type and match cells to the recipient of the transplant. To do so, we need stem cells from many different embryos with diverse genetic backgrounds. Nobody knows how many and what type will be required. This state of ignorance in part results from many years of forbidding NIH to fund human embryonic stem cell work. One of the questions that was raised shortly after Bush's announcement was how many embryos the 60 stem cell lines were derived from. If they were derived from half a dozen embryos, the genetic diversity is probably not sufficient. However, if they were derived from 60 embryos, that may be sufficient diversity but this is also not yet clear.

    2. Would you support making embryos solely for the purpose of creating stem cells? First, it is very important for us to define an "embryo". In developmental biology, an embryo is usually defined as a developing organism that has formed a midline (something called a "primitive streak). This usually occurs at above 2 weeks. Before this time, it is a blastocyst or a "pre-embryo". Once it has formed a primitive streak, the fertilized egg can be called an embryo and it will progressive form more structure. By 6 weeks, the human embryo has recognizable structures, limb buds, and organs. After this time, it is usually called a fetus. A cloned egg (formed by removing the nucleus from an egg and substituting the adult nucleus from another cell) can be stimulated to form a blastocyst, a hollow spherical clump of cells. The stem cells are usually located on the inner surface of the blastocyst. There are many questions whether the blastocyst should be considered an embryo. Many people and religious groups define a person from the moment of conception. Note that in a cloned blastocyst, there was never any conception (i.e. fertilization) nor development of the blastocyst into an embryo. One can even eliminate the potential of the cloned egg to form an embryo by treating the egg with factors that prevent this from happening.

    3. Garbage collectors. There is no "danger" to garbage collectors from frozen blastocysts. They are clean.


    [This message was edited by Wise Young on August 15, 2001 at 07:20 AM.]