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Regenerative Medicine Therapies for Targeting Neuroinflammation After Stroke.

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  • Regenerative Medicine Therapies for Targeting Neuroinflammation After Stroke.

    Front Neurol. 2018 Sep 3;9:734.

    Regenerative Medicine Therapies for Targeting Neuroinflammation After Stroke.

    Rajkovic O1, Potjewyd G1, Pinteaux E1.

    Inflammation is a major pathological event following ischemic stroke that contributes to secondary brain tissue damage leading to poor functional recovery. Following the initial ischemic insult, post-stroke inflammatory damage is driven by initiation of a central and peripheral innate immune response and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), both of which are triggered by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and infiltration of circulating immune cells. Stroke therapies are limited to early cerebral blood flow reperfusion, and whilst current strategies aim at targeting neurodegeneration and/or neuroinflammation, innovative research in the field of regenerative medicine aims at developing effective treatments that target both the acute and chronic phase of inflammation. Anti-inflammatory regenerative strategies include the use of nanoparticles and hydrogels, proposed as therapeutic agents and as a delivery vehicle for encapsulated therapeutic biological factors, anti-inflammatory drugs, stem cells, and gene therapies. Biomaterial strategies-through nanoparticles and hydrogels-enable the administration of treatments that can more effectively cross the BBB when injected systemically, can be injected directly into the brain, and can be 3D-bioprinted to create bespoke implants within the site of ischemic injury. In this review, these emerging regenerative and anti-inflammatory approaches will be discussed in relation to ischemic stroke, with a perspective on the future of stroke therapies.
    “As the cast of villains in SCI is vast and collaborative, so too must be the chorus of hero's that rise to meet them” Ramer et al 2005